Physicochemical characterization of catalysts using a variety of technique: Adsorption measurements, specific surface area, metal surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, hysteresis, Different methods, tplots. Structure characterization techniques, ESR, NMR for the study of solid catalysts Magnetic properties and measurements Electrical properties and measurements as a function of adsorption and catalysis. The use of these methods for the study of structure of catalysts and for the elucidation of catalytic reactions.
Classification of techniques on the basis of input and output probes. Thermal in neutral out techniques, TPX methods qualitative and quantitative aspects of TPX techniques. Temperatureprogrammed technique: pulse adsorption; temperatureprogrammed reduction and desorption; surface acidity estimation. Photon in techniques – Spectroscopic methods in catalyst characterization: UVVis and FTIR spectral analysis of catalysts and surfaces. Photoelectric effect: basic principles of electron spectroscopy, classification of various spectroscopies. Photoelectron spectroscopy: XPS and UPS) experimental methodselectron energy analysisphoton sources angular dependencecross section and its determinationvalence and core photoemission Koopmans’ theoremquantum chemical methodsfinal state effects Electron energy loss spectroscopy: Franck and Hertz experiment instrumentation selection rulestheory studies on molecules surface states high resolution spectroscopy adsorption and catalysis applications. Auger electron spectroscopy: introduction instrumentation classification of various transitions-applications Related techniques: inverse photoemission spin resolved photoemission recent advances in instrumentationbrighter photon sources. Electron in techniques – AES and EELS techniques, EIS Ion in techniques ISS and other ion sputtering techniques
Origin, composition of petroleum; production of different fuel fractions: refinery operations;primary processing, secondary processing, thermal and catalytic methods; analysis, tests and specifications for petroleum fuels; catalytic cracking: catalysts, processes; catalytic reforming: reactions, catalysts, processes; hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of fuel fractions, catalysts, active centres and mechanisms; deep desulfurization of diesel fuels; sweetening of kerosene, alternate desulfurization methods; desulfurization of FCC naphtha; hydrocracking: catalysts and processes; processing of heavy oils - hydrodemetallization, residue HDS; lube oil production – dewaxing, wax isomerization: catalysts and processes. alkylates for petrol – current processes, use of solid acids; light naphtha isomerization, catalysts and current processes; oxygenate additives; sulfur recovery from fuel processing operations; H2production; deactivation of catalysts; regeneration of catalysts; recovery of materials; types of reactors used in fuels processing.
General definition, Nanochemistry basics, distinction between molecules, nanoparticles and bulk materials. Physicochemical considerations (geometric and electronic structures, reactivity) of nanomaterials. Sizedependent properties. Interfacial, colloidal, surfactant and supramolecular chemistry. Preparation (sonochemical, precipitation, solgel, chemicalvapour deposition, gasphase condensation, templatemediated, electrodeposition, solvothermal, etc.) and fabrication (zero, one - and two - dimensional nanostructures) of nanomaterials. Characterization of nanomaterials by diffraction, spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Nanomaterials including molecular sieves, dendrimers, inorganicorganic hybrids. Potential relevance of organic and inorganic nanostructures for advanced material science, organic synthesis, catalysis, and adsorption/separation processes. Risk discussion and future perspectives.